Ayurveda is the "science" behind yoga. In Ayurvedic medicine, doshas are defined as three main energies of the body governing the physiological processes of the body.
Doshas are described by the Chopra Center as "mind-body" types and include unique blends of physical, mental and emotional characteristics. And although everyone has all three doshas present in their make up- we can have imbalance in these doshas which will lead to "leaning" more towards one/two doshas than the others.
Of the three Doshas- Vata, Pitta, Kalpha: Vata Dosha is the energy in charge of motion. Pitta Dosha is the energy charged with digestion, absorptions, nutrition and temperature and Kapha Dosha is energy that is in charge of growth in the body, supplying water to the body and moisturizing and the health of the immune system. Ayurveda for Beginners
It does not take one much searching to find an internet source, or person who studies Ayurveda to help you find out what/which doshas primarily comprise your way of being.
Find out your dosha here: The Chopra Center Dosha Quiz
Once you are familiar with the Doshas and take the quiz to find out which Dosha(s) primarily dominate your constitution- When you are in the season associated with that Dosha, you can then learn to help promote balance and prevent "firing" up or creating imbalances in your Dosha constitution.
For instance- Those with Pitta Dosha constitution want to avoid adding "fire" to their regimen during hot times of year, they may avoid spicy foods or eat room temperature or colder foods. Likewise- If your primary Dosha is Vata (associated with the element of air) You may not want to drink a big glass of bubbly sparkling water with your meal. (In fact - according to Ayurveda, EVERYONE should be drinking room temperature water with their meals or refraining from drinking at all during meals.)
Interesting? Would you like to know more? This is one of the topics we discuss/cover during our teacher training and would be delighted to dive in deeper with you!